Ammonia is a chemical compound of formula NH3 (generic group of hydrogen nitrides). Under normal temperature and pressure conditions, it is a gas denoted NH3 gas. It is colorless and irritating, a low dose odor; It burns eyes and lungs in higher concentration.
It is industrially produced by the Haber-Bosch process from diazote and dihydrogen. This is one of the most synthesized compounds in the world, used as a refrigerant, and for the synthesis of many other compounds (including a large fertilizer tonnage). It is also a liquid solvent in pure use at 20 ° C and 8 bar or liquid NH3.
The self-ionization of liquid ammonia is very low, characterized by an ionic dissociation constant Ki = [NH4 +] [NH2-] which is about 10-33 mol2 L-2 at -50 ° C.
In the Liquid NH3 Protective Solvent, the Ammonium NH4 + cation is the strongest acid while the anion amide NH2- is the strongest base.
Its electronic doublet makes both a base, a nucleophilic, a ligand and a gearbox. Its basic property makes it useful for various ammonium salts. Its nucleophilic properties make it a basic reagent in organic chemistry for the preparation of amides, imides, etc. Its ligand properties have been known since the beginning of coordination chemistry and the famous scientific debate between Sophus Mads Jørgensen and Alfred Werner, who attracted the Nobel Prize Jury, awarded to the latter in 1913. Finally, his property. Reduce allows it to be industrially oxidized in nitric acid and in hydrazine, two strong industrial products.
In chemical engineering, the system (air – NH3 – water) is a highly studied model of liquid-gas phases, since ammonia is a high water-soluble gas, with a solubility of 89.9 g per 100 g of water at 0 ° C and only 7.4 g at 96 ° C. The gas is water-soluble, in the form of aqueous NH3 dissociated in ammonium cations and hydroxyl anions, this aqueous solution is named ammonia.
Physiologically, he plays a major role in agriculture; It is via ammonia that nitrogen is artificially incorporated by plants. In animals, it is involved in the removal of nitrogen from the body and the regulation of blood pH.
On earth it is essentially trapped in the earthly bark (mineral ammonia salts such as bicarbonates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, phosphates, etc.) or in organic matter (coal, peat, oil) … in excess in the air, It is an acidifying and eutrophizing pollutant of the environment. After an improvement from 1990 to 2011, its contents in the air, now followed by satellite, are divided into Europe and France, mainly due to more industrial agricultural practices (data 2016). In 2011, agriculture was according to the EEA responsible for 94% of NH3 emissions. The breeding via manure and slurry is the 1st source,. Its content in the air should be small (except for excrement or urine decomposition, fermentation by microorganisms in confined medium or anaerobic putrefaction).
On Wednesday, a much noteworthy process has come to an end in Italy. The result: Six Hooligan bosses from the environment of Juventus Turin need to go to jail. The maximum penalty received a Hooligan leader, which was sentenced to four years and ten months in prison.
The men were charged with severe blackmail, money laundering and violent tables. The Hooligans had established a criminal association in order to control the black market at the tickets and to blackmail Juventus.
The defendants would have put the trade in tickets militarily controlled and employees of the club under pressure to get cheaper at ticket quotas.
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Juventus reacted with an ad in 2018 and brought several raids to the country nationwide. Still, the verdict is nothing legally legally, the defendants can still appeal.